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Robert E. Lee
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
1st Bull Run
2nd Bull Run
(By Justin Clowers, Shaun DeGracia, Patrick McMillin, & Kimberly Munoz)
In 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected president of the United States. He defeated Stephen Douglas because of the greater northern population. Southerners were angered by the growing abolitionist movement, and when Lincoln was elected, they feared that their way of life was in jeopardy. South Carolina seceded on December 20, 1860. Within the next two weeks, six other southern states had left the union (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas). Little did people know that a very bloody 4 year war was to come.
Many things caused the Civil War. Not simply the election of Lincoln, but many things that ranged from economical problems to even discrimination of race. Other problems in short, consisted of slavery, the abolitionist (people who wanted to stop slavery) movement, difference in economy, and the western expansion.
In Congress there needed to be a balance of slave and non-slave states so one side couldn't out vote the other. Westward expansion caused some heated debates on whether or not to permit certain territories to become states because of their view on slavery and if slavery was morally right etc. Most of these debates occurred in the early or mid-1800s.
Most people think that slavery was the only cause of the Civil War. Because of slavery, African Americans were discriminated against in the United States. In reality, southern slaves were often treated better than some northern factory workers. Because of the movement to stop slavery (the abolitionist movement) southerners concluded that all or most northerners were against them and wanted to destroy their way of life. Southerners developed the illusion that all northerners were against them and it united the southern states. For about 245 years, slaves had been used in America as free labor. Some slaves tried to escape to freedom, and some accomplished this goal. Once an escape was discovered, usually a man hunt followed. If caught, slaves were usually beaten or whipped. The basis of the southern economy was cotton, so slaves were a very important to southern life. Lincoln had said that he would end slavery so the southern population saw him as a threat to their livelyhood.
The northern economy was based on industrial things. Textile factories, forges, and general manufacturing are just a few examples of what held up the northern economy. Many low paid workers worked in those factories under horrible conditions and in an unsafe environment. Factory owners recruited the poor, women and children, and immigrants, so they didn't have to pay the higher wages required for a normal person. The southern economy was based on cotton and other agriculture. The south used slaves to do manual labor. this was viewed as bad by northerners when their own factory workers were no better or even worse off than slaves. Southerners didn't really attempt to stop this when northerners tried to stop slavery. Most southerners didn't even own slaves, they worked the fields themselves. Southerners didn't try to destroy the northern way of life, but northerners did attempt to destory theirs.
As you can see, we are a little biased toward the south because we live here in Texas. Many other smaller events also lead to the Civil War, and we hope this has taught you something new.
FORT SUMTER(By Kelsey Torgerson)
Fort Sumter was the most important fort in the start of the civil war. The shell which opened the momentous bombardment of Fort Sumter was fired from a mortar located at Fort Johnson on James Island. The first shots were fired on April 12, 1861 at 4:30 A.M. Fort Sumter was there to protect the city of Charleston and it's harbor. Charleston is located in South Carolina. Accordingly, on April 11th, General Beaugard sent Major Anderson the following communication:
Headquarters Provisional Army,
April 11, 1861
The government of the Confederate States has hitherto from any hostile demonstrations against Fort Sumter, in hope that the government of the United States, with a view to the amicable adjustment of all questions between the two governments, and to advert the calamities of war, would voluntary evacuate it.
There was reason at one time to believe that such would be the course pursued by the government of the United states, and under that impression my government has refrained from making any demand for the surrender of the fort. But the Confederate States can no longer delay assuming actual possession of a fortification commanding the entrance of one of their harbors and necessary to its defense and security.
I am ordered by the government of the Confederate States to demand the evacuation of Fort Sumter. My aides, Colonel Chestnut and Captain Lee, are authorized to make such a demand of you. All proper facilities will be afforded for the removal of yourself and command, together with company arms and property, and all private property, to any post in the United States which you may select. The flag which you have up held so long and with so much fortitude, under the most trying circumstances, may be saluted by you on taking it down. Colonel Chestnut and Captain Lee will, for a reasonable time, await your answer.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,G.T. BEAUREGARD,
Major Anderson replied as follows:
Fort Sumter S.C.,
April 11, 1861
I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication demanding the evacuation of this fort, and to say, in reply thereto, that it is a demand with I regret that my sense of honor, and of my obligations to my government, prevent my compliance. Thanking you for the fair, manly and courteous terms proposed, and for the high compliment paid me,
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.
For over three months the troops stationed on the islands surrounding Fort Sumter had been constantly employed building batteries, mounting guns, and making every preparation for the defense of the harbor, and, if necessary, for an attack on the fort if the government in Washington persisted in its refusal to order its evacuation.
Later on, for 34 hours, they assaulted Sumter with an unceasing bombardment, before its defenders decided to give up, and not then until the condition of the fort made it impossible to continue the defense. The fort was a scene of ruin and destruction. The place was surrounded by smoldering flames and burning ashes. The place was a mess, it had been destroyed. Anderson had then agreed to its bombardment and to evacuate Sumter on April 12-14, 1961. Thus closed the memorable and momentous attack upon Fort Sumter by the forces of South Carolina, and thus began the war which lasted until April, 1865, when the Southern Confederacy, as completely ruined and exhausted by fire and sword as Fort Sumter in April, 1861, gave up the hopeless contest and reluctantly accepted the inevitable.
As of today, Fort Sumter is still on its own island, the same place it was when they left it there is 1865. They have redone the building, and currently it is a museum. People can visit the Fort, and see many other fascinating sites. You can take horse drawn carriage rides, see the fort itself, shop, and even have a wonderful lunch. On the boat ride over there they play a tape of Fort Sumter, past and present. It is a very beautiful place. It is well cleaned and organized (my conclusion drawn from pictures and reports). Fort Sumter is a wonderful place to visit whenever you feel the need to go visit "special" places (again, drawn from my own conclusions). Please visit http://www.nps.gov/fosu/ for information on the operating hours, seasons, costs, rates, fees, etc. Hope you enjoy reading this as much as I enjoyed writing it.
The Man of the Fort
Thomas Sumter was a soldier, a public official; born in Hanover County, Virginia. Raised on the frontier, a veteran of the French and Indian War, he settled in South Carolina in 1765. During the American Revolution he led a partisan campaign against the British in the Carolinas and the success of his small force gained him the nickname, "Gamecock of the Revolution" (and led to his name being given to the island-fort off Charleston where the Civil War began). After the war, Sumter sat in the U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate.
The battle of Bull Run was the first battle of the Civil War, which began on the day of July 21, 1861. This battle was also called the Battle of Manassas that was fought in Virginia near Bull Run, a small stream of about 30 miles southwest of Washington, D.C. The Battle of Bull Run was a war between a Union Army of about 30,000 soldiers under the command of General Irvin McDowell and a Confederate army of about 22,000 soldiers commanded by General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard. Both armies were ill-trained, but the Union army was assigned to blockade the South and put pressure in the North, which led to march, accompanied by many spectators, toward the Confederate capitol at Richmond. When the Union troops got to Bull Run, they encountered the Confederate troops coming from their base at Manassas. This 5-hour battle started off with the attack of the Union army, which resulted in a Confederate retreat to Henry House Hill. There, General Thomas Jonathan Jackson commanded a small portion of a brigade, which held the Union forces back until the 9,000 strengthen troops commanded by General Joseph Eggleston Johnston arrived. The Union army. This was how Jackson earned the nickname "Stonewall". Even though the flight of the Union army didn't end, the Confederate forces were too disorganized to go on. In the end, the Confederate army had approximately 387 killed, 1,582 wounded, and 13 missing. The Union forces ended up with about 460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 missing, and 29 guns were abandoned from the Confederacy. In this battle, the North was known as "the greatest army of the world" by Congressmen and representatives. The Confederate's victory encouraged the South and spurred the North to greater effort. This was the battle in which changed the status of the conflict from a rebellion to a civil war.
2nd BULL RUN(By Tony Martinez)
The second battle of Bull Run began on the 28th of August when Jackson ordered an attack on a Federal column that was passing across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike. The fighting at Brawner Farm lasted several hours and resulted in a stalemate. Union and Confederate armies meet for a second time on the plains of Manassas. The north planned to unite the armies of General George Brinton McClellan and General John Pope for an assault on Richmond. On August 29th, Pope found his army facing two confederate armies and a corps under General James Longstreet, which arrived on the field from Thoroughfare Gap and took position on Jackson's right flank. The Confederacy had out smarted the north by having Pope think he would only have to hold off Jackson's infantry, therefore he did not know that General Lee had split up his army withholding Longstreet's troops until the right moment. The innocent enthusiasm that came before the earlier encounter was gone. War was not the holiday outing or grand adventure envisioned by the young recruits of 1861. The contending forces, now made up of seasoned veterans, knew well the reality of war. The battle of Second Manassas, covering three days(August 29-31), produced far greater carnage, (3,399 killed) and brought the Confederacy to the height of its power. Still the battle did not weaken the north's determination. After this battle, the destruction would be far greater, over 23,000 killed, missing or wounded. The outcome of the second battle lead to the southern army's first full-scale invasion across the Potomac River into Maryland. This was the decisive battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign. The war's final outcome was yet unknown, and it would be left to other battles to decide whether the sacrifice at Manassas was part of the price of southern independence, or the cost of one country again united under the national standard.
ANTIETAM(By John Martinez)
On September 17, 1862 the bloodiest battle of the Civil War took place. To the Union, the battle was called the battle of Antietam, and to the Confederacy it was called the Battle of Sharpsburg. In command of the Confederacy waas General Robert E. Lee, Major General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, and Brigader General Jubal Early. For the Union, Major General George B. McClellan, Brigader General Ambrose E. Burnside, and Major General Joseph Hooker, were the commanders.
The attack began at dawn when Hooker began a murderous fire on Lee's men, and drove the Confederacy back. Around 7:00 a.m. Jackson was pinned down, but then proceeded to force the Union to pull back. The Union then launched a counter attack again to gain some valuable ground. Southeast of town General Burnside's troops had been trying to cross a bridge over Antietam Creek since around 9:30 a.m. Four hundred Georgians had driven back each attempt by Burnside's men. Approximately at 1:00 p.m., the Union finally suceeded in crossing the creek, and then advanced, driving the Confederacy back. Later that afternoon Burnside and his men had driven the Georgians back to Sharpsburg. Around 4:00 p.m., General A.P. Hill's division, left behind by Jackson, arrived to give the Confederate forces some badly neeeded support. This was when the battle came to a close.
The Battle of Antietam is referred to as the "bloodiest" battle of the Civil War because more men were killed or wounded here, than during any other Civil War battle. Neither side gained a decisive victory in the battle, although the Union claimed it as one. This was an opportune time for Abraham Lincoln to write the Emancipation Proclamation. This is probably the most important outcome of this battle.
GETTYSBURG(By Garrett Soper)
Geology and the Gettysburg Campaign of 1863
The Gettysburg area is made up of the Piedmont proper, the Triassic basins, the Blue Ridge of Virginia, and the Great Valley. Gettysburg National Park Map.
The Gettysburg campaign began on June 3, 1863, when Ewell's Corps left Fredericksburg and marched north. His army marched up the Great Valley using the Blue Ridge Mountains to hide from the Union scouts. The Great Valley is underlain by easily erodable limestone and shale mostly of Ordovician age.
The Union army did not know exactly where the Confederate army was, but they knew it was moving northward. On June 28 at three a.m., General Meade was given command of the Army of the Potomac. Meade continued the move north to confront the Confederate Army. Reynold's First Corps was in the lead.
The two armies eventually met on July 1, 1863 in the Gettysburg area. This was not planned by either side. A number of ridges run generally north and south and are diabase sills. Two Brigades of A. P. Hill's Corps were entering the town looking for shoes when they encountered Herr Ridge about 1 1/2 miles from town, while 900 yards to the east was McPherson's Ridge and the dismounted cavalry of General John Buford. The next ridge, 500 yards farther east, was
Seminary Ridge, where the Lutheran Theological Seminary was located. A three story building of the seminary made a good lookout post for the Union soldiers.
The main road or pike traversed these ridges from the northwest paralleling a fairly deep but unused railbed 200 yards to the north. Both Union and Confederate soldiers poured into the battle during the day, but eventually the Union troops were driven through the town and onto Cemetery Ridge, which is a diabase still just to the south of town. The Union troops set up defensive positions along this ridge in a fishhook shape. The outcrop is about three miles long, with Big Round Top at 785 feet above sea level at its southernmost point. Little Round Top, just to its north, lies 650 feet above sea level and the rest of Cemetery Ridge is about 570 feet above sea level.
On July 2 Lee's army fortified Seminary Ridge, which is a Rossville-type diabase dike, at about 560 feet above sea level and attacked the southern end of the Union line around Big and Little Round Top and the Devil's Den. The famous charge of the 20th Maine under the command of Colonel Josuha Chamberlain against the 47th Alabama of colonel William Oates saved the Union army from being flanked by the Confederates. Down below in Devil's Den, a mass of diabase boulders, more men died as the Confederates drove the Union back.
The last day of battle was July 3rd. The major battle was Pickett's Charge against the center of the Union line. The Union soldiers could not entrench themselves, because the resistant York Haven-type diabase sill was too close to the surface. The only protection they had were isolated boulders and rocks and a few trees. The attacking Confederates, 12,000 strong, had to march across a mile of open fields aiming for a small clump of trees on Cemetery Ridge. Some made it to the objective, including General Armistead, who leaped the wall urging his men on, but he then fell mortally wounded. Every confederate who crossed the wall that day was either killed or captured. The rest of
the Confederates were driven back by Union reinforcements from other areas.
In this three day battle, the Union side lost about 23,000 men and the Confederates about 28,000 killed missing or wounded. The war still had two more terrible years to go. The local geology was an important factor in this battle.
VICKSBURG(By Nadia Costa)
The Vicksburg Campaign was a major siege of the American Civil War, consisting of military campaigns in 1862-63. Vicksburg perched on a steep bluff along the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, was of strategic importance to the North and South. What had broken the confederate first line of defense for the Mississippi Valley was the capture of Fort Donelson. Vicksburg then remained the one serious obstacle to complete command of the Mississippi River by the federal forces. Union control of the Mississippi meant the Confederacy would be split in two. The main Union objective was to clear the river and cut the south in half. In May 1862, Union forces made an unsuccessful attempt to take the city by means of a novel expedition. The Confederates strengthened their defenses, setting up extensive batteries to obstruct passage on the river. On June 27, a Union fleet under Admiral David Glasgow Farragut appeared below the city. The attack failed, as did several subsequent maneuvers to bypass Vicksburg by river. In December 1862, the Union general Ulysses S. Grant proposed moving from Holly Springs, then a base, against Granada , with a view to cutting the Confederate line of communications and drawing General John Clifford Pemberton, the Confederate commander of Vicksburg, from his strong hold. Meanwhile the Union general William T. Sherman, with 35,000 troops, was to be convoyed downriver by a fleet commander by the Union naval officer David Dixon Porter. These plans, however, were upset by a Confederate raid on Holly Springs. Sherman, after a successful landing, found the countryside virtually impossible because of swampy land. He had just reached firm ground when Pemberton's return made a further attack Vicksburg from the east . Sensing Grant's intentions too late, the Confederate General Joesph E. Johnston hurried westward toward Vicksburg to protect the city from the impending attack, but Grant trust his army between the city and Johnston's force. Grant repulsed Pemberton at Champion's Hill on May 16 and attacked Vicksburg on May 19. Two assaults on the fortress failed, and regular siege operations were begun; these lasted more than six weeks. On July 4 the Confederate defenders capitulated. The total casualties in the campaign were Union, 10,142; Confederate, 9091. In addition, the confederates surrendered 31,000 soldiers as prisoners of war.
SHILOH(By Steven Rendon)
The battle of Shiloh took place on April 6th and 7th of 1862. The battle was named after a church located near the spot where the battle took place.
The battle of Shiloh was said to be one of the bloodiest battles of the entire civil war. More people were killed in the two days that the battle of Shiloh took place then the entire American Revolution and Mexican War combined. Out of a total of 84,000 men, 24,000 were killed in only two days. The union which had 44,000 men lost 13,000 soldiers and the Confederacy which consisted of 40,000 soldiers had 11,000 soldiers which were killed. During the first day of battle Gen. Albert S. Johnston of the Confederacy was killed. After his death Gen. P.G.T. Beaurecard of the confederacy took over command for the rest of the brief yet bloody battle. After the two day battle the Union finally won.
As a result of the victory the Union was able to secure their position on the Western front. Thus giving them an advantage over the Confederacy which may have allowed them to finally win the Civil War.
ATLANTA(By Daniel Lester)
- Campaign:Atlanta (1864)
- Date:July 22, 1864
- Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman (Union)
- Gen. John Bell Hood (Confederate)
- Forces Fighting:
- Military Division of the Mississippi (Union)
- Army of Tennessee (Confederate)
- Estimated Losses:
- Union States: 3,641
- Confederate: 8,499
- Results:Union Victory
How the War Got Started
Lincoln needed a smashing victory so he could win the presidential campaign of 1864. He thought that the capture of Atlanta would be perfect. If he didn't get a magnificent victory then he would surely lose the election to McClellan. Johnston gave the Union no chance of victory by refusing to battle with Sherman. Davis had the final say and he believed the war had to be won on the battle field. Davis removed Johnston and put General John Bell Hood in his place.
During the War
Hood determined to attack Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson, so he withdrew his main army at night to Atlanta's inner line, forcing Sherman to follow him. In the meantime, he sent William J. Hardee and his corps on a fifteen-mile march to hit the defenseless Union left and rear, east of Atlanta. Wheeler's calvary was to maneuver farther out on Sherman's supply line. Gen. Frank Cheatham's corps were to attack the Union front. Hood miscalculated the time necessary to make his march and Hardee was unable to attack until afternoon. McPherson was concerned about his left side and sent his reserves "Greenville Dodge's XVI Army Corps" to that location. Two of Hood's divisions ran in to the reserve force and were driven back. A confederate soldier shot and killed McPherson when he rode out to see the fighting. At about 4 p.m., Cheatham's corps broke through the Union front at the Hurt House. Sherman stopped Cheatham's corps with twenty artillery pieces on a knoll near his headquarters to halt their drive. Maj. Gen. John A. Logan's army corps then led a counterattack that restored the Union line. The Union held on and Hood suffered high casualties. On September 2, the Union pulled the victory that Lincoln needed.
In office from 1861-1865
Through the years, many people have regarded Abraham Lincoln as the greatest person in United States history. He was one of the truly great men of all time. He led the United States through the Civil War (1861-1865), which was the greatest crisis in United States history. Lincoln helped end slavery in the nation and helped keep the American Union from splitting apart during the war.
Born: February 12,1809
Died: April 15,1865
Weight: 180 pounds
Mother: Nancy Hanks Lincoln
Stepmother: Sarah Bush Lincoln
Nicknames: Honest Abe, Illinois Rail-Splitter, The Tall Sucker, The Giant Killer
Marriage: November 4,1842 to Mary Todd (1818-1882), in Springfield, Illinois
Children: Robert Todd (1843-1926), Edward Baker (1846-1850), William Wallace (1850-1862), Thomas Lincoln (1853-1871)
Higher Education: none
Religion: no specific denomination (grew up as a part Baptist Church)
Military Service: Captain in Black Hawk War (1832)
Legal Residence When Elected: Illinois
Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12,1809 in a log cabin near present day Hodgenville, Kentucky. His parents, Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, named him after his pioneer grandfather who was shot dead by hostile Indians in 1786.
In 1818 Nancy Hanks Lincoln, Lincoln's mother, died of "milk sickness." A year after his wife's death Thomas Lincoln, Abraham's father, went in search of a wife and married Sarah Bush Johnston.
Abraham loved his new stepmother. She brought 3 children of her own into the household. Now, along with his own sister, Sarah, he also had a step-brother, John, and two step-sisters, Elizabeth and Matilda.
As Abraham grew up, he loved to read and preferred learning to working in the fields. As much as he loved to learn, he didn't get to do much of it. Lincoln went to school little by little, he said all of his schooling added up "did not amount to one year."
Lincoln saw brief service as a Captain in the Black Hawk War (1832), and he made an unsuccessful run for Illinois legislature the same year. He ran again in 1834, 1836, 1838, and 1840, and he won all 4 times. (Lincoln was a member of the Whig Party; he remained a Whig until 1856 when he became a Republican). Additionally, he studied law in his spare time and became a lawyer in 1836. Lincoln became a U.S. Representative from Illinois in 1847 and continued to be one until 1849.
Among his many jobs were those of a railsplitter, boatman, manual laborer, store clerk, soldier, store owner, election clerk, postmaster, and surveyor.
- He failed as a business man- as a storekeeper.
- He failed as a farmer- he despised his work.
- He failed at his first attempt to obtain political office.
- He failed when he sought the office of speaker.
- He failed in his first attempt to obtain an office in Congress.
- He failed when he ran for the United States Senate.
- He failed when friends sought for him the nomination for the Vice-Presidency in 1856.
Lincoln, a 6 foot 4 inch 180 pound man, met Mary Todd in Springfield in 1839. Three years later they were married, and over the next 11 years had 4 boys, only one whom lived to maturity.
Lincoln's children were Robert Todd Lincoln (1843-1926), Edward Baker (1846-1850), William Wallace (1850-1862), and Thomas Lincoln (1853-1871)
Willie's death on February 20, 1862 grieved Lincoln deeply. Mrs. Lincoln could not be consoled.
Robert Lincoln had been a student at Harvard when his father was elected. He remained there until February 1865, when he was appointed to General Grant's staff as Captain.
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President (Republican) of the United States of America and was in office from 1861 to 1865. Lincoln entered office just before the Civil War began.
Lincoln received less than 40 percent of the popular vote in winning the Presidential Election of 1860.
Lincoln's inauguration was in front of the unfinished U.S. Capitol building on March 4,1861.
By late summer of 1862, Lincoln was convinced that the time had come for a change in policy toward slavery. Abhorring war, Abraham accepted it as the only means to save the Union. On January 1, 1863, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy.
The end of the war was clearly in sight when Lincoln took the Oath of Office a second time, on March 4, 1865.
On Good Friday, April 14, 1865, the Lincolns went to a play entitled Our American Cousin at Ford's Theater. During the performance Booth arrived at the theater, entered the State Box from the rear, and shot the President in the back of his head at 10:15 p.m. Lincoln was carried across the street to the Peterson house where he passed away the next day at 7:22 a.m.
This was the first Presidential assassination in American history, and the nation mourned its leader. His death was the result of deep divisions and hatreds of the times.
Lincoln's body was taken to Springfield by train, and he was buried in the Lincoln Tomb in Oak Ridge Cemetery on May 4, 1865. Because of his assassination, Reconstruction took place without Lincoln's guidance and leadership.
Afterwards, Booth was hunted down and shot in a barn.
As President, Lincoln had been bitterly criticized. After his death, even his enemies praised his kindly spirit and selflessness. Millions of people had called him "Father Abraham."
- 1809-Abraham Lincoln was born
- 1811-Moved to Knob Creek, Kentucky
- 1816-Moved to Little Pigeon Creek, Indiana
- 1830-Moved to Macon County, Illinois
- 1831-Moved to New Salem, Illinois
- 1832-Served in Black Hawk War
- 1834-1842-Served in Illinois legislature
- 1837-Moved to Springfield, Illinois, Began law practice
- 1839-Met Mary Todd
- 1842-Married Mary Todd
- 1843-Birth of Robert Todd
- 1846-Birth of Edward Baker
- 1847-1849-Member of U.S. House of Representatives
- 1850-Death of Edward Baker, Birth of William Wallace
- 1851-Death of Lincoln's Father
- 1853-Birth of Thomas Lincoln
- 1858-Lincoln debated slavery with Stephen A. Douglas, Lincoln addressed the crowd
- 1860-Presidential Election, Lincoln elected President
- 1861-Moved to Washington D.C., Beginning of Civil War
- 1862-Lincoln thinks slavery has to quit, Death of William Wallace
- 1863-Emancipation Proclamation issued
- 1865-Lincoln was assassinated, Booth was shot down by police, End of Civil War
- 1871-Death of Thomas Lincoln
- 1872-Death of Mary Todd
- 1926-Death of Robert Todd
- April 27, 1822: Born in Point Pleasant, Ohio
- 1828-1835: Attends subscription schools in Geeorgetown, Ohio
- May 1839: Leaves Ohio for West Point, New York. Spends 4 years at school as a cadet
- June- August 1841: Wrote "Those ten weeks were shorter than one week at West Point"
- 1846-1848: Fight in Mexican War as a Quartermaster
- 1848-1852: Assigned to Sackets Harbor, New York and Detroit, Michigan
- 1852-1854: Sent to Humboldt Bay, California, in July begins to have a drinking problem
- August 1854: Returns to Missouri after resigning his comission
- June 17, 1861: Appointed Colonel of the 21st Illinois Infantry
- August 17, 1861: Appointed Brigadier General
- November 17, 1861: The Battle of Belmont, first engagement as General. Union forces raid the Confederate camp, but fall down when they counterattack
- February 16, 1862:v Takes Fort Donelson, Tennessee; first Union victory of strategic importance in war. Grant becomes nationally famous
- February-April 1863: Unsuccessful moves around Vicksburg, Mississippi
- May 12, 1863: Implements his grand strategy in taking Vicksburg by moving between two wings of the enemy and routing them both
- July 4, 1863: Surrender of Vicksburg
- October 1863: Takes command at Chattanooga
- November 22-25, 1863: The Battle of Chattanooga
- March 12, 1864: Appointed General Chief of all U.S. Armies
- May 5, 1864: Receives commission of Lieutenant General from Lincoln
- May 31-June 3, 1864: The Battle of Cold Harbor
- April 9, 1865: Lee surrenders to Grant in the McClean house, Appomattox, Virginia
- Fall 1866: Grant refuses to be sent to Mexico by President Andrew Johnson
- May 21, 1868: Nominated as a candidate for President by Republican National Convention in Chicago
- March 4, 1869-March 4, 1877: President of the United States
- June 2-8, 1880: Grant is unsuccessful in securing the Republican nomination for President
- December 24, 1883: Slips on pavement outside his home, causing major injury to his hip
- September 1884: Grant's illness of the throat is diagnosed by doctors as cancer
- January-March 1885: Cancer spreads and completely debilitates the General; only able to eat liquid food in small portions
- June 16, 1885: Moves with his family to Mt McGregor, New York; doctors advises him to do so because of the cooler climate, drops to 120 pounds
- July 23, 1885: At 8:06 a.m. Grant dies, surrounded by his family and physicians
Born in Lancaster, Ohio, May 8, 1820. Sherman was raised by his mother and father until the age of 9 when his father died. His mother, unable to care for the family, sent Sherman and his brother to other family and friends. Sherman was sent to Thomas Ewing, an Ohio politician and his father's dear friend, while his brother was sent to their Aunt Cump, the nickname given to him in his new family, later married Mr. Ewing's daughter, Ellen.
Sherman, besides his well known job as a general, had many other occupations. After graduating from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1840, Sherman took up a job in 1853, (after the Mexican War), at a bank in San Francisco. After this job, he took up another one as superintendent for the Louisiana State Seminary and Military Academy, now Louisiana State University, in Alexandria, Louisiana, later moved to Baton Rouge. He served through 1859-1861 and resigned for he believed that if a fragment of the U.S. Constitution still survived he would remain loyal to it. To do so, he moved his family to St. Louis, Missouri and was elected President of the Fifth Street Railroad.
The greatest and most known part of Sherman's life was his services in the army. He offered his services for three years. Sherman's first assignment was the Mexican War where he was posted in San Francisco. He was then later put in command of a volunteer regiment (infantry), becoming a brigadier general of volunteers after the first Battle of Bull Run. Sherman was rewarded for his victory (with his division) at the Battle of Shiloh by becoming military general of volunteers. He was placed in command of the Fifth Position of the army of the Tennessee after relieving Grant from Paducan, Kentucky on February 13, 1862. His regiment saw its first battle at Shiloh which they lost the first day, but with reinforcements that later came, they won. In July of 1862, he was assigned to command the District of Memphis. He later failed to capture the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg, but with grant, the battle ended with the seize of the city in July 1863. He was then given command of the Army of the Tennessee in the fall of 1863. The army then fought in the Battle of Chattanooga but was unsuccessful. In the spring of 1864, Sherman was made supreme commander of the armies in the west and ordered by Grant to, "create havoc and destruction of all resources that would be beneficial to the enemy." On May 4, 1864, the Atlanta campaign began wiping out 60 miles of Southern land in Georgia, the South's supply hold. (Refer to "The Battle of Atlanta.") After the war, he was commissioned Lieutenant General in the regular army, and was promoted to full general and command of the entire U.S. Army after Grant was elected president. He resigned from the army in 1883.
"War is hell"
When he was asked to run for president he said, "I will not accept if nominated and will not serve if elected."
Published "Memoirs" in 1875.
Even though Sherman had swept destruction through Georgia, he did leave but one house undisturbed. This house, no longer standing, belonged to a Mrs. Cecelia Sovall Shelman. This woman was once Sherman's true love. He met her as he attended Military School because her brother was his roommate. He had promised her then that he would protect her and this he did by surrounding her house with soldiers and left a note with her slave that was assigned to protect her house while she was gone. In the note he proposed his love for her and retold of his promise to protect her.
Died February 14, 1891 in New York City.
Jefferson Davis was born on June 3,1808 in Christian county, Kentucky. He was the youngest of 10 children. His parents were Samuel and Jane Cook Davis who moved their family shortly after Jefferson was born to Wilkinson county , Mississippi. Davis attended Transylvania college in Kentucky and went to the United States Military Academy for his senior year. His record there was not distinguished and he had a drinking problem. After he graduated in 1828 he served on the northwestern frontier. While on that frontier he fell in love with the daughter of Zachary Taylor, Sarah Knox. Davis participated in the Black Hawk War in 1832 but in 1835 he resigned his commission and married Sarah Knox. The newlyweds settled on a 1000 acre plantation in Mississippi, but 3months later Sarah died of malaria.
By the year 1843, Davis was nominated for the Mississippi Legislature. Though not a victorious win, the election made a good impression. On February 26, 1845 he married Varina Howell who was a member of the local aristocracy. That same year, on September 15, Davis's Mother, Jane Cook Davis, dies. He was elected to the house of representatives also that year. His stay in the house was short. He resigned in 1846 to command the Mississippi Rifles in the Mexican War. On August 10, 1847, he was appointed to the U.S. Senate. He was elected and was a member on Military Affairs. He resigned in 1851 and became the democratic governor of Mississippi. The following year, his son Emory died on June 13,1854. Davis's daughter, Margaret Howell Davis, was born on Febuary 25, 1855. From 1853 to 1857 was probably the peak of Davis's career. In those years he became the secretary of war. During his years as secretary of was he accomplished many things that improved the mlitary. At the end of his team in 1857, Davis was elected to the Senate. He resigned after Mississippi seceded from the Union. Then his son, Jefferson Davis Jr., was born on January 16, 1857.
PRESIDENT OF THE CONFEDERACY
Davis became the President of the Confederacy on Febuary 18, 1861. He had a little bit more than 9 million behind him. Over 9000 people volunteered as soldiers however there were scarce supplies. Although they had only scarce supplies, they improved many of there ships and were able to take out most of the Union's supply boats. Davis was accused of inadequate leading. But the accusations slowed down as the war got under way and the concentration was more on winning the war. The war was not won though. On April 3, 1865 Davis and his cabinet fled to Charlotte, N.C. where the Confederate government operated for the last time. On May 10 Davis was accused of treason and of participation of the assasination of President Lincoln. Luckily he was released because there was never a trial held for his accusations.
In 1889, he was in Brierfield and became ill of pneumonia and quickly returned as far as New Orleans, La. where he passed away on December 6 at 12:45 am. His last words were "Pray excuse me, I cannot take it." Those words were spoken when the doctors were trying to give him medicine for his pneumonia and he refused it.
US military leader, Confederate commander in the American Civil War, and military strategist. In 1859 he suppressed John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry. Lee had freed his own slaves long before the war began, and he was opposed to secession, however his devotion to his native Virginia led him to join the Confederacy. At the outbreak of war he became military adviser to Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy, and in 1862 commander of the Army of Northern Virginia. Lee actually had been offered command of the Union armies, but he resigned his commission to return to Virginia. During 1862-63 he made several raids into Northern territory but after his defeat at Gettysburg was compelled to take the defensive; he surrendered 1865 at Appomattox.
Lee graduated from West Point and distinguished himself in the Mexican War 1846-48. In 1861 he joined the army of the Confederacy of Southern states; in 1862 he received the command of the Army of Northern Virginia and won the Seven Days' Battle defending Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital, against General McClellan's Union forces. In 1863 Lee won victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, both in Virginia, and in 1864 at Cold Harbor, Virginia, but was besieged in Petersburg, Virginia, June 1864-April 1865. He surrendered to General Grant on April 9, 1865, at Appomattox Courthouse. Following the war he was paroled and served as president of Washington College (now Washington and Lee University). His home had been seized by Union forces and now is part of Arlington National Cemetery.
Thomas Jonathan Jackson was born on January 21, 1824, in Clarksburg, Virginia(now in West Virginia), and was educated at the U.S. Military Academy. Following his graduation in 1846 from West Point he participated in the Mexican War until 1848. He became an instructor at the Virginia Military Institute in 1851, and the next year he resigned from the army. On the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, he left VMI to enter the Confederate army. He was immediately commissioned a colonel and within months was given the rank of brigadier general. Jackson earned his popular nickname at the First Battle of Bull Run in 1861, where Brigadier General Barnard E. Bee said Jackson and his tropps stood against the Union forces "like a stone wall". While commanding his troops, the Stonewall Brigade, during a campaign in the Shenandoah Valley in the spring of 1862, Jackson executed a remarkable tactical maneuver against three Union armies that were menacing Richmond. After driving back the army of General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks, which was advancing from the north, Jackson turned and defeated the armies threatening to attack his rear ranks from the east and west. Jackson then took part with Robert E. Lee in the defeat of General George McClellan in the Seven Days' Battle at Richmond. In August 1862, Jackson defeated the army of General John Pope, ensuring a Confederate victory at the Second Battle of Bull Run. Jackson then crossed the Potomac into Maryland with Lee, who ordered him to capture Harpers Ferry. His task accomplished in September 1862, Jackson then rushed north to Antietam Creek to aid Lee, who was under attack by an overwhelming Union force. Jackson also commanded the right wing of the victorious Confederate army at Fredericksburg in December 1862. During the Rappahannock campaign in Virginia the following spring, by launching a surprise attack on the rear columns of the Union army, Jackson prevented the threatened encirclement of the Confederate forces by the troops of General Joseph Hooker. On May 2, 1863, while leading his forces at Chancellorsville, Jackson was accidentally shot and fatally wounded by a nervous confederate sentry who mistook him for a union soldier.
Grant and Lee at Appomattox
(By Justin Clowers, Shaun DeGracia, Patrick McMillin, & Kimberly Munoz)
The American Civil War lasted four years. Measured in physical devastation and human lives, it was the costliest war the American people have experienced. When the war was over 620,000 men had been killed and at least that many more had been wounded in a nation of about 35 million. The north lost a total of about 364,000 soldiers (nearly one of every four soldiers). Also more than 37,000 black soldiers lost their lives fighting for freedom during the American Civil War. The conditions of the war were so bad more men died of disease and sickness than on the battlefield.
The physical devastation was largely limited to the south because most of the fighting took place there. Most of Richmond, Charleston, Atlanta, Mobile, and Vicksburg lay in ruins. The countryside which armies had passed through was littered with the gutted plantation houses and barns, up rooted railroad lines, and burned bridges. Crops were destroyed or confiscated, and much livestock lay dead. For months renegade bands of confederate and some union soldiers roamed the countryside. With nothing to go back to, they robbed and attacked settlers and farmers throughout the south.
After the war, over 4 million slaves were freed. They didn't know what the future had in store for them. With freedom came hunger and homelessness. Some slaves stayed on the plantations, but others went north. Either way, thousands of former slaves were without homes, clothes, food, jobs, and didn't have any education. The Freedman's Bureau helped both blacks and whites after the war by providing them with food and medical care.
This page was constructed by Mr. Whalen's 8th Period
American history class.